The method returns three-dimensional coordinates as a Vector3D object containing x , y , and z values that are relative to the origin of the three-dimensional display object. Parameters point : Point — A two dimensional Point object representing global x and y coordinates. Evaluates the bounding box of the display object to see if it overlaps or intersects with the bounding box of the obj display object.
Parameters obj : DisplayObject — The display object to test against. Evaluates the display object to see if it overlaps or intersects with the point specified by the x and y parameters. The x and y parameters specify a point in the coordinate space of the Stage, not the display object container that contains the display object unless that display object container is the Stage.
Parameters x : Number — The x coordinate to test against this object. Converts a three-dimensional point of the three-dimensional display object's local coordinates to a two-dimensional point in the Stage global coordinates. For example, you can only use two-dimensional coordinates x,y to draw with the display. Graphics methods. To draw a three-dimensional object, you need to map the three-dimensional coordinates of a display object to two-dimensional coordinates.
First, create an instance of the Vector3D class that holds the x-, y-, and z- coordinates of the three-dimensional display object. The method returns a two-dimensional Point object that can be used with the Graphics API to draw the three-dimensional object. Parameters point3d : Vector3D — A Vector3D object containing either a three-dimensional point or the coordinates of the three-dimensional display object.
Converts the point object from the display object's local coordinates to the Stage global coordinates. This method allows you to convert any given x and y coordinates from values that are relative to the origin 0,0 of a specific display object local coordinates to values that are relative to the origin of the Stage global coordinates. The x and y values that you assign represent local coordinates because they relate to the origin of the display object.
You then pass the Point instance that you created as the parameter to the localToGlobal method. The method returns a new Point object with x and y values that relate to the origin of the Stage instead of the origin of the display object. Parameters point : Point — The name or identifier of a point created with the Point class, specifying the x and y coordinates as properties. Dispatched when a display object is added to the display list.
The following methods trigger this event: DisplayObjectContainer. Dispatched when a display object is added to the on stage display list, either directly or through the addition of a sub tree in which the display object is contained. If the playhead is not moving, or if there is only one frame, this event is dispatched continuously in conjunction with the frame rate. This event is a broadcast event, which means that it is dispatched by all display objects with a listener registered for this event.
Note: This event has neither a "capture phase" nor a "bubble phase", which means that event listeners must be added directly to any potential targets, whether the target is on the display list or not. All frame scripts have been run. Dispatched when a display object is about to be removed from the display list. The following methods of a DisplayObjectContainer object also generate this event if an object must be removed to make room for the new object: addChild , addChildAt , and setChildIndex.
Dispatched when a display object is about to be removed from the display list, either directly or through the removal of a sub tree in which the display object is contained. This event provides the last opportunity for objects listening for this event to make changes before the display list is rendered. You must call the invalidate method of the Stage object each time you want a render event to be dispatched.
Render events are dispatched to an object only if there is mutual trust between it and the object that called Stage. Note: This event is not dispatched if the display is not rendering. This is the case when the content is either minimized or obscured.
Filters: Retrieving Data from Server Retrieving Data from Server Classes x. Package flash. The display list manages all objects displayed in the Flash runtimes. Use the DisplayObjectContainer class to arrange the display objects in the display list. DisplayObjectContainer objects can have child display objects, while other display objects, such as Shape and TextField objects, are "leaf" nodes that have only parents and siblings, no children.
All display objects inherit from the DisplayObject class. View the examples More examples Adding display objects to the display list Traversing the display list Panning and scrolling display objects Caching display objects Setting an opaque background color Applying blending modes Adjusting DisplayObject colors Display object example: SpriteArranger Geometry example: Applying a matrix transformation to a display object.
Display programming Basics of display programming Core display classes Working with display objects Handling events for display objects Choosing a DisplayObject subclass Manipulating display objects Animating objects Loading display content dynamically. Public Properties. Hide Inherited Public Properties. Show Inherited Public Properties. If set to true, Flash runtimes cache an internal bitmap representation of the display object.
A reference to the class object or constructor function for a given object instance. Public Methods. Hide Inherited Public Methods. Show Inherited Public Methods. Registers an event listener object with an EventDispatcher object so that the listener receives notification of an event. Checks whether the EventDispatcher object has any listeners registered for a specific type of event.
Indicates whether an object has a specified property defined. Indicates whether an instance of the Object class is in the prototype chain of the object specified as the parameter. Indicates whether the specified property exists and is enumerable. Sets the availability of a dynamic property for loop operations. Returns the string representation of this object, formatted according to locale-specific conventions. Checks whether an event listener is registered with this EventDispatcher object or any of its ancestors for the specified event type.
Click for more information on events. Hide Inherited Events. Show Inherited Events. Property Detail. The following example shows how the to attach a simple AccessibilityProperties object to a TextField instance: Copy. Implementation public function get alpha : Number public function set alpha value: Number : void More examples Fading objects.
Pixel values of the display object override those of the background. Where the display object is transparent, the background is visible. This means that the display object is pre-composed in a temporary buffer before it is processed further. This is done automatically if the display object is pre-cached using bitmap caching or if the display object is a display object container with at least one child object with a blendMode setting other than BlendMode.
This setting is commonly used for shadows and depth effects. SCREEN Multiplies the complement inverse of the display object color by the complement of the background color, resulting in a bleaching effect. This setting is commonly used for highlights or to remove black areas of the display object. LIGHTEN Selects the lighter of the constituent colors of the display object and the color of the background the colors with the larger values.
This setting is commonly used for superimposing type. DARKEN Selects the darker of the constituent colors of the display object and the colors of the background the colors with the smaller values. This setting is commonly used for more vibrant colors. ADD Adds the values of the constituent colors of the display object to the colors of its background, applying a ceiling of 0xFF.
This setting is commonly used for animating a lightening dissolve between two objects. This setting is commonly used for animating a darkening dissolve between two objects. This requires the blendMode setting of the parent display object to be set to BlendMode. This requires the blendMode of the parent display object to be set to BlendMode.
This setting is commonly used for shading effects. The shader that is used is specified as the Shader instance assigned to the blendShader property. If the blendMode property is set to BlendMode. Implementation public function get blendMode : String public function set blendMode value: String : void More examples Applying blending modes. BlendMode blendShader. The following code creates two sprite objects, a square and a circle, and sets the blend mode of the circle in the foreground to BlendMode.
Implementation public function set blendShader value: Shader : void Throws ArgumentError — When the shader output type is not compatible with this operation the shader must specify a pixel4 output. ArgumentError — When the shader specifies fewer than two image inputs or the first two inputs are not image4 inputs. ArgumentError — When the shader specifies an image input that isn't provided. See the ShaderInput. More examples Using a shader as a blend mode. BlendMode flash.
Shader flash. A display object does not use a bitmap even if the cacheAsBitmap property is set to true and instead renders from vector data in the following cases: The bitmap is too large. In AIR 1. So, if a bitmap image is 8, pixels wide, it can only be 2, pixels high. In Flash Player 9 and earlier, the limitation is is pixels in height and 2, pixels in width. The bitmap fails to allocate out of memory error. The following example applies a drop shadow to a Shape instance.
It then traces the value of the cacheAsBitmap property, which is set to true when the filter is applied: Copy. For example, the following code sends an untransformed bitmap representation of the display object to the GPU: Copy. Cached bitmap transform matrices. To add a filter by using ActionScript, perform the following steps assume that the target display object is named myDisplayObject : Create a new filter object by using the constructor method of your chosen filter class.
Assign the value of the myDisplayObject. Add the new filter object to the myFilters temporary array. Assign the value of the temporary array to the myDisplayObject. To modify an existing filter object, you must use the technique of modifying a copy of the filters array: Assign the value of the filters array to a temporary array, such as one named myFilters. Modify the property by using the temporary array, myFilters. For example, to set the quality property of the first filter in the array, you could use the following code: myFilters.
For example, to create a DropShadow filter, you would write: Copy. TextField; import flash. When you set the height property, the scaleY property is adjusted accordingly, as shown in the following code: Copy. The following code creates two TextField objects and adjusts the height property of each based on the textHeight property of each; it also positions the second text field by setting its y property: Copy.
The following code assumes that this refers to a display object. Implementation public function get mask : DisplayObject public function set mask value: DisplayObject : void More examples Masking display objects. The following code creates a TextField object as well as a Sprite object that is set as a mask for the TextField object. When the user clicks the text field, the drag event listener function calls the startDrag method of the mask Sprite object: Copy. Implementation public function get metaData : Object public function set metaData value: Object : void.
Implementation public function get mouseX : Number Example How to use this example The following code creates a Sprite object and traces the mouseX and mouseY positions when the user clicks the sprite: Copy. Implementation public function get mouseY : Number Example How to use this example The following code creates a Sprite object and traces the mouseX and mouseY positions when the user clicks the sprite: Copy.
Implementation public function get name : String public function set name value: String : void Throws IllegalOperationError — If you are attempting to set this property on an object that was placed on the timeline in the Flash authoring tool.
Example How to use this example The following code creates two Sprite object and traces the associated name property when the user clicks either of the objects: Copy. The opaque background region does not respond to mouse events. Implementation public function get opaqueBackground : Object public function set opaqueBackground value: Object : void More examples Setting an opaque background color. The following code creates a Shape object with a blue circle and sets its opaqueBackground property to red 0xFF : Copy.
You can use parent to move up multiple levels in the display list as in the following: Copy. The following code creates three Sprite objects and shows how the parent property reflects the display list hierarchy: Copy. Implementation public function get root : DisplayObject Example How to use this example The following code shows the difference between the root property for the Stage object, for a display object a Loader object that is not loaded both before and after it has been added to the display list , and for a loaded object a loaded Bitmap object : Copy.
Implementation public function get rotation : Number public function set rotation value: Number : void Example How to use this example The following code creates a Sprite object and rotates the object when the user clicks it: Copy. Implementation public function get rotationX : Number public function set rotationX value: Number : void Example How to use this example In this example, two ellipses rotate using their rotationX and rotationY properties.
The first ellipse's registration point is set to its center. It rotates around itself. The second ellipse rotates around an external point. The following example shows how you can 3D rotate a Sprite object around its x-axis with Flash Professional, ActionScript 3. Example provided by ActionScriptExamples. Implementation public function get rotationY : Number public function set rotationY value: Number : void Example How to use this example In this example, two ellipses rotate using their rotationX and rotationY properties.
Implementation public function get rotationZ : Number public function set rotationZ value: Number : void. The eight other regions of the grid are the following areas: The upper-left corner outside of the rectangle The area above the rectangle The upper-right corner outside of the rectangle The area to the left of the rectangle The area to the right of the rectangle The lower-left corner outside of the rectangle The area below the rectangle The lower-right corner outside of the rectangle You can think of the eight regions outside of the center defined by the rectangle as being like a picture frame that has special rules applied to it when scaled.
When the scale9Grid property is set and a display object is scaled, all text and gradients are scaled normally; however, for other types of objects the following rules apply: Content in the center region is scaled normally. Content in the corners is not scaled. Content in the top and bottom regions is scaled horizontally only.
Content in the left and right regions is scaled vertically only. All fills including bitmaps, video, and gradients are stretched to fit their shapes. For example, consider the following display object and a rectangle that is applied as the display object's scale9Grid : The display object. The red rectangle shows the scale9Grid. Implementation public function get scale9Grid : Rectangle public function set scale9Grid value: Rectangle : void Throws ArgumentError — If you pass an invalid argument to the method.
More examples Controlling distortion when scaling. The following code creates a Shape object with a rectangle drawn in its graphics property. The rectangle has a pixel-thick line as the border and it is filled with a gradient. The timer event calls the scale function, which scales the Shape object by adjusting the scaleX and scaleY properties. The scale9Grid applied to the Shape object prevents the rectangle's border line from scaling — only the gradient fill scales: Copy.
Implementation public function get scaleX : Number public function set scaleX value: Number : void More examples Manipulating size and scaling objects. The following code creates a Sprite object with a rectangle drawn in its graphics property.
Implementation public function get scaleY : Number public function set scaleY value: Number : void More examples Manipulating size and scaling objects. Implementation public function get scrollRect : Rectangle public function set scrollRect value: Rectangle : void More examples Panning and scrolling display objects.
The following example shows how the scrollRect property defines the scrolling area for a display object, circle. When you click the circle object, the clicked event handler method adjusts the y property of the scrollRect property of the circle object, causing the object to scroll down: Copy. Implementation public function get stage : Stage Example How to use this example The following code creates two TextField objects and uses the width property of the Stage object to position the text fields: Copy.
The following code has no effect on myDisplayObject : myDisplayObject. Implementation public function get transform : flash. The following code sets up a square Sprite object. When the user clicks the sprite, the transformer method adjusts the colorTransform and matrix properties of the transform property of the sprite: Copy. Implementation public function get visible : Boolean public function set visible value: Boolean : void Example How to use this example The following code uses a Timer object to call a function that periodically changes the visible property of a display object, resulting in a blinking effect: Copy.
When you set the width property, the scaleX property is adjusted accordingly, as shown in the following code: Copy. When the user clicks the sprite, the widen method increases the width property of the sprite: Copy.
Implementation public function get x : Number public function set x value: Number : void More examples Changing position. The following code sets up a circle Sprite object. A Timer object is used to change the x property of the sprite every 50 milliseconds: Copy. Implementation public function get y : Number public function set y value: Number : void More examples Changing position.
PerspectiveProjection flash. Matrix3D transform. This example draws two ellipses and has them go back and forth down and up the z axis toward the vanishing point. One ellipse is set to move faster than the other. Consider the following code, which shows how the rectangle returned can vary depending on the targetCoordinateSpace parameter that you pass to the method: Copy.
Returns Rectangle — The rectangle that defines the area of the display object relative to the targetCoordinateSpace object's coordinate system. The following example shows how the getBounds method can return a larger rectangle than the getRect method does, because of the additional area taken up by strokes.
In this case, the triangle sprite includes extra strokes because of the width and jointStyle parameters of the lineStyle method. The trace output in the last two lines shows the differences between the getRect and getBounds rectangles: Copy. Returns Point — A Point object with coordinates relative to the display object.
More examples Changing position relative to the Stage. Point class. The following code creates a Shape object and shows the result of calling the hitTestPoint method, using different points as parameters. The globalToLocal method converts the point from Stage coordinates to the coordinate space of the shape: Copy.
Returns Vector3D — A Vector3D object with coordinates relative to the three-dimensional display object. Returns Boolean — true if the bounding boxes of the display objects intersect; false if not. Example How to use this example The following code creates three Shape objects and shows the result of calling the hitTestObject method. Note that although circle2 and circle3 do not overlap, their bounding boxes do.
Thus, the hit test of circle2 and circle3 returns true. Returns Boolean — true if the display object overlaps or intersects with the specified point; false otherwise. Returns Point — A two-dimensional point representing a three-dimensional point in two-dimensional space. Example How to use this example This example draws a simple three-dimensional cube in a two dimensional space using display.
The location of this display object is offset, so the cube's registration point is in its center. A vector of Vector3D objects holds the cube's three dimensional coordinates. The top of the cube is draw first, the bottom is drawn second, and then the top and bottom four corners are connected.
You need to add the cube to the display object container before drawing the cube in order to use the local3DToGlobal method. Returns Point — A Point object with coordinates relative to the Stage. More examples Using Point objects. The following code creates a Sprite object. The mouseX and mouseY properties of the sprite are in the coordinate space of the display object. This code uses the localToGlobal method to translate these properties to the global Stage coordinates: Copy.
Event Object Type: flash. Event property Event. The Event. ADDED constant defines the value of the type property of an added event object. This event has the following properties: Property Value bubbles true cancelable false ; there is no default behavior to cancel. The target is not always the object in the display list that registered the event listener. Use the currentTarget property to access the object in the display list that is currently processing the event.
Related API Elements flash. This event has the following properties: Property Value bubbles false cancelable false ; there is no default behavior to cancel. If the DisplayObject instance is being directly added, the added event occurs before this event. If the DisplayObject instance is being directly removed, the removed event occurs before this event. This event has the following properties: Property Value bubbles false cancelable false ; the default behavior cannot be canceled.
Examples How to use this example. The following example uses the DisplayObjectExample class to draw an orange square in the corner of the Stage and then respond to events by displaying text information for each event. This task is accomplished by performing the following steps: Class properties are declared for the color and size of the square.
The following event listener methods are attached to the square: addedHandler listens for added events, dispatched when the square is added to the display list. Language Reference only. DisplayObject EventDispatcher Object. The display object appears in front of the background. Forces the creation of a transparency group for the display object. Multiplies the values of the display object constituent colors by the colors of the background color, and then normalizes by dividing by 0xFF, resulting in darker colors.
Multiplies the complement inverse of the display object color by the complement of the background color, resulting in a bleaching effect. Selects the lighter of the constituent colors of the display object and the color of the background the colors with the larger values. Selects the darker of the constituent colors of the display object and the colors of the background the colors with the smaller values. Compares the constituent colors of the display object with the colors of its background, and subtracts the darker of the values of the two constituent colors from the lighter value.
Adds the values of the constituent colors of the display object to the colors of its background, applying a ceiling of 0xFF. Subtracts the values of the constituent colors in the display object from the values of the background color, applying a floor of 0. Applies the alpha value of each pixel of the display object to the background.
Erases the background based on the alpha value of the display object. Adjusts the color of each pixel based on the darkness of the background. Adjusts the color of each pixel based on the darkness of the display object.
Adjusts the color using a custom shader routine. ArgumentError — When the shader output type is not compatible with this operation the shader must specify a pixel4 output. ArgumentError — When filters includes a ShaderFilter and the shader output type is not compatible with this operation the shader must specify a pixel4 output. ArgumentError — When filters includes a ShaderFilter and the shader doesn't specify any image input or the first input is not an image4 input.
ArgumentError — When filters includes a ShaderFilter and the shader specifies an image input that isn't provided. This can result in significant reductions in power used by the SoC, and therefore in the overall heat being produced.
Due to possible system stability problems involved with running an undervoltage, especially when using undervoltaged fixed clock peripherals eg. These steps can also help when the SoC is being throttled, and mean that throttling all the way back to MHz is much less likely, giving an overall increase in fully loaded performance. The default CPU governor is ondemand , the governor can be manually changed with the cpufreq-set command from the cpufrequtils package to reduce idle power consumption:.
Due to the architecture of the SoCs used on the Raspberry Pi range, and the use of the upstream temperature monitoring code in the Raspberry Pi OS distribution, Linux-based temperature measurements can be inaccurate. However, the vcgencmd command provides an accurate and instantaneous reading of the current SoC temperature as it communicates with the GPU directly:.
Whilst heatsinks are not necessary to prevent overheating damage to the SoC — the thermal throttling mechanism handles that — a heatsink or small fan will help if you wish to reduce the amount of thermal throttling that takes place. Depending on the exact circumstances, mounting the Raspberry Pi vertically can also help with heat dissipation, as doing so can improve air flow. All other models of Raspberry Pi computer use the bootcode. If an error occurs during boot then an error code will be displayed via the green LED.
Newer versions of the bootloader will display a diagnostic message which will be shown on both HDMI displays. Raspberry Pi OS automatically updates the bootloader for critical bug fixes. The recommended methods for manually updating the bootloader or changing the boot modes are Raspberry Pi Imager and raspi-config. To change the boot-mode or bootloader version from within Raspberry Pi OS run raspi-config. Update Raspberry Pi OS to get the latest version of the rpi-eeprom package.
Select Default for factory default settings or Latest for the latest stable bootloader release. The boot behaviour e. Please see the Bootloader Configuration sections for details of the configuration. When the editor is closed, rpi-eeprom-config applies the updated configuration to latest available EEPROM release and uses rpi-eeprom-update to schedule an update when the system is rebooted:. The following command applies boot. The rpi-eeprom-update systemd service runs at startup and applies an update if a new image is available, automatically migrating the current bootloader configuration.
Raspberry Pi OS uses the rpi-eeprom-update script to implement an automatic update service. The script can also be run interactively or wrapped to create a custom bootloader update service. The -d flag instructs rpi-eeprom-update to use the configuration in the specified image file instead of automatically migrating the current configuration.
Since the release status string is just a subdirectory name, then it is possible to create your own release streams e. The following command replaces the bootloader configuration in pieeprom. If a valid recovery. If the bootloader update image is called pieeprom. Since recovery.
Instead, newer versions of the bootloader support a self-update mechanism where the bootloader is able to reflash the EEPROM itself. For more information about the rpi-eeprom-update configuration file see rpi-eeprom-update -h.
Starting with version of the Raspberry Pi 4 bootloader, diagnostic information can be displayed at boot time on an HDMI display. To see this diagnostic information, power down the Raspberry Pi 4, remove the SD card, then power back up. A diagnostic display similar to below should appear on the attached display. This diagnostics page will also appear if the bootloader is unable to boot from an inserted SD card, or is unable to network boot; for example, if there is no bootable image on the card, or it is defective, or the network boot parameters are incorrect.
Once the diagnostics page is displayed, a reboot is only possible by power cycling the device i. The top line describes the model of Raspberry Pi and its memory capacity. The QR code is a link to the Downloads Page. Filename for start. The Raspberry Pi has a number of different stages of booting. This document explains how the boot modes work, and which ones are supported for Linux booting. The SD card must be present in the Raspberry Pi for it to boot. Once bootcode. If you have a problem with a mass storage device still not working, even with this bootcode.
This will extend to six seconds the time for which it waits for the mass storage device to initialise. It is possible to enable an early stage UART to debug booting issues useful with the above bootcode. To check if UART is supported in your current firmware:. Then use screen on linux or a Mac or putty on windows to connect to the serial.
You should get an immediate serial output from the device as bootcode. USB boot defaults on the Raspberry Pi 3 will depend on which version is being used. See this page for information on enabling USB boot modes when not enabled by default. When the BCM boots, it uses two different sources to determine which boot modes to enable.
Firstly, the OTP one-time programmable memory block is checked to see which boot modes are enabled. GPIO boot mode is disabled by default. Next, the boot ROM checks each of the boot sources for a file called bootcode. The overall boot mode process is as follows:. If there is no SD card inserted, the SD boot mode takes five seconds to fail.
If the value at boot time does not equal the default pull, then that boot mode is enabled. This can take time: on some devices it can take up to three seconds for a hard disk drive to spin up and start the enumeration process. Because this is the only way of detecting that the hardware is attached, we have to wait for a minimum amount of time two seconds. It is possible to boot from the secondary SD card on a second set of pins, i. However, we have not yet enabled this ability.
Once enabled, the processor will use the value of the OTGID pin on the processor to decide between the two modes. The usbboot code for doing this is available on Github. Attempt to load recovery. Success - run recovery. Please see the bootloader configuration page for more information about each boot mode and the boot folder page for a description of the GPU firmware files loaded by this stage.
Display start. The bootloader may also be updated before the firmware is started if a pieeprom. Since the flag is cleared before starting the firmware, a crash or reset will cause the original config. To set the tryboot flag add tryboot after the partition number in the reboot command. Normally, the partition number defaults to zero but it must be specified if extra arguments are added. Before editing the bootloader configuration, update your system to get the latest version of the rpi-eeprom package.
This section describes all the configuration items available in the bootloader. The syntax is the same as config. Conditional filters are also supported except for EDID. Configure the receiving debug terminal at bps, 8 bits, no parity bits, 1 stop bit. This is lowest possible power state for halt but may cause problems with some HATs because 5V will still be on.
Raspberry Pi has a dedicated power button which operates even if the processor is switched off. It is represented as a bit unsigned integer where each nibble represents a boot-mode. The boot modes are attempted in lowest significant nibble to highest significant nibble order. It is read right to left and up to 8 digits may be defined. Network boot - See Network boot server tutorial.
See NVMe boot for more details. HTTP boot over ethernet. See HTTP boot for more details. This should be the last boot option because it does not currently support timeouts or retries. Optional dotted decimal ip address e. This may be useful on home networks because tftpd-hpa can be used instead of dnsmasq where broadband router is the DHCP server. In order to support unique TFTP boot directories for each Raspberry Pi the bootloader prefixes the filenames with a device specific directory.
If neither start4. Overrides the PXE Option43 match string with a different string. By default, the new GUID format is the concatenation of the fourcc for RPi4 0x - little endian , the board revision e. The gateway address to use if the TFTP server is on a different subnet e. Other non-zero values are reserved for future use. Skip rendering of the HDMI diagnostics display for up to N seconds default 5 unless a fatal error occurs.
If self update is enabled then the bootloader will look for the update files. If the update image differs from the current image then the update is applied and system is reset. Previously this property was only checked by the rpi-eeprom-update script. However, now that self-update is enabled the bootloader will also check this property.
If network install or HTTP boot is initiated, boot. Invalid host names will be ignored. They should only contain lower case alphanumeric characters and - or. You can use this property to change the port used for network install and HTTP boot. HTTPS is enabled when using the default host fw-download-alias1. The case of the path is significant.
Use forward Linux slashes for the path separator. Leading and trailing forward slashes are not required. The embedded Raspberry Pi Imager application is configured with a json file downloaded at startup. You can change the URL of the json file used by the embedded Raspberry Pi Imager application to get it to offer your own images. When network install is enabled, the bootloader displays the network install screen on boot if it detects a keyboard. If network install is enabled, the bootloader attempts to detect a keyboard and the SHIFT key to initiate network install.
You can change the length of this wait in milliseconds with this property. In order to simplify parsing, the bootloader requires every field separator to be present. The source ip address must be specified but the following fields may be left blank and assigned default values. It can be enabled on demand via a GPIO filter e. This is intended to allow problematic e. This is specific to the bootloader and is not passed to the OS. The format is a comma-separated list of hexadecimal values with the VID as most significant nibble.
Spaces are not allowed. How long to wait in milliseconds before advancing to the next LUN e. Most devices work correctly using the default setting: change this only if you have problems booting from a particular device. Minimum: Maximum: Default: 1 second. This property is a bit-field which controls the verbosity of USB debug messages for mass storage boot-mode. Enabling all of these messages generates a huge amount of log data which will slow down booting and may even cause boot to fail.
If this property is set to 1 then the bootloader will attempt load a ramdisk file called boot. Subsequent files e. For more information about secure-boot and creating boot. Bit 0 0x1 indicates that the. This disables any compatibility checks e. This option also automatically enables UART logging in start. This is also described on the Boot options page. See the Winbond W25x40cl datasheet for further details.
This is sometimes useful when updating multiple Raspberry Pis via network boot because this option can be controlled per Raspberry Pi e. After reading config. If the [config. This can be used to automatically apply settings to every operating system, for example, dtoverlays. Open a command prompt and start raspi-config.
Navigate to Advanced Options and then Bootloader Version. Select Latest and choose Yes to confirm. Select Finish and confirm you want to reboot. After the reboot, open a command prompt again and update your system. If you run rpi-eeprom-update again after your Raspberry Pi has rebooted, you should now see that the CURRENT date has updated to indicate that you are using the latest version of the bootloader.
The choice between the two boot modes is made by the firmware at boot time when it reads the OTP bits. Example code showing how the host needs to talk to the Raspberry Pi can be found on Github. The host first sends a structure to the device down control endpoint 0. This contains the size and signature for the boot security is not enabled, so no signature is required. Secondly, code is transmitted down endpoint 1 bootcode.
Finally, the device will reply with a success code of:. If you wish to attach more than one SSD or hard disk to the Raspberry Pi, this normally requires external power - either a powered hard disk enclosure, or a powered USB hub. On earlier Raspberry Pi 4B boards, or to select alternate boot modes, the bootloader must be updated. The bootloader configuration page for other boot configuration options.
On the Raspberry Pi 2B v1. This is to allow USB mass storage boot, and network boot. Once this bit has been set, the SD card is no longer required. The next step is to reboot the Raspberry Pi with sudo reboot and check that the OTP has been programmed with:. Check that the output 0xa is shown. If it is not, then the OTP bit has not been successfully programmed. In this case, go through the programming procedure again.
If the bit is still not set, this may indicate a fault in the Raspberry Pi hardware itself. Make sure there is no blank line at the end of config. You can now boot from a USB mass storage device in the same way as booting from an SD card - see the following section for further information. The procedure is the same as for SD cards - simply image the USB storage device with the operating system image. After preparing the storage device, connect the drive to the Raspberry Pi and power up the Raspberry Pi, being aware of the extra USB power requirements of the external drive.
After five to ten seconds, the Raspberry Pi should begin booting and show the rainbow splash screen on an attached display. Make sure that you do not have an SD card inserted in the Raspberry Pi, since if you do, it will boot from that first. The default timeout for checking bootable USB devices is 2 seconds. Some flash drives and hard disks power up too slowly.
It is possible to extend this timeout to five seconds add a new file timeout to the SD card , but note that some devices take even longer to respond. Some flash drives have a very specific protocol requirement that is not handled by the bootcode and may thus be incompatible.
The Raspberry Pi will still boot from the SD card, but bootcode. Before attempting to boot from a USB mass storage device it is advisable to verify that the device works correctly under Linux. This should appears as a removable drive. See this forum thread about UAS and how to add usb-storage. Spinning hard disk drives nearly always require a powered USB hub. When searching for a bootable partition, the bootloader scans all USB mass storage devices in parallel and will select the first to respond.
If the boot partition does not contain a suitable start. There is no method for specifying the boot device according to the USB topology because this would slow down boot and adds unnecessary and hard to support configuration complexity. Please see the Raspberry Pi 4 Bootloader Configuration page for more information. We also have a tutorial about setting up a network boot system.
Network booting works only for the wired adapter built into the above models of Raspberry Pi. Booting over wireless LAN is not supported, nor is booting from any other wired network device. File exists: Server will reply with the first block bytes of data for the file with a block number in the header.
This will normally result in an error file not found. This is to be expected, and TFTP boot servers should be able to handle it. From this point the bootcode. This is useful because it enables you to create separate directories with separate start. If you put all your files into the root of your tftp directory then all following files will be accessed from there. The first thing to check is that the OTP bit is correctly programmed.
If row 17 contains a then the OTP is correctly programmed. To capture the ethernet packets on the server, use tcpdump on the tftpboot server or DHCP server if they are different. You will need to capture the packets there otherwise you will not be able to see packets that get sent directly because network switches are not hubs!
This will write everything from eth0 to a file dump. The important part of the reply is the Vendor-Option Option This needs to contain the string "Raspberry Pi Boot", although, due to a bug in the boot ROM, you may need to add three spaces to the end of the string. RRQs can be replied to by either the first block of data or an error saying file not found. In a couple of cases they even receive the first packet and then the transmission is aborted by the Raspberry Pi this happens when checking whether a file exists.
The example below is just three packets: the original read request, the first data block which is always bytes containing a header and bytes of data, although the last block is always less than bytes and may be zero length , and the third packet the ACK which contains a frame number to match the frame number in the data block.
There are a number of known problems with the Ethernet boot mode. Since the implementation of the boot modes is in the chip itself, there are no workarounds other than to use an SD card with just the bootcode. The Raspberry Pi will attempt a DHCP request five times with five seconds in between, for a total period of 25 seconds.
If the server is not available to respond in this time, then the Raspberry Pi will drop into a low-power state. There is no workaround for this other than bootcode. This may result in two separate devices being offered the same IP address and using it without it being properly assigned to the client. Different DHCP servers have different behaviours in this situation. This reduces the chances of this happening because it requires a collision in the hash.
Once the bits are set, they permanently allocate 5 GPIOs to allow this selection to be made. Once the OTP bits are set they cannot be unset so you should think carefully about enabling this, since those 5 GPIO lines will always control booting. Although you can use the GPIOs for some other function once the Raspberry Pi has booted, you must set them up so that they enable the desired boot modes when the Raspberry Pi boots.
Where n is the bank of GPIOs which you wish to use. Because of the way the OTP bits are arranged, if you first program GPIO boot mode for bank 1, you then have the option of selecting bank 2 later. The reverse is not true: once bank 2 has been selected for GPIO boot mode, you cannot select bank 1. You need an NVMe M. You cannot plug an M. Be careful to get the correct type: a suitable adaptor can be found online by searching for 'PCI-E 3. The enclosure must support M key SSDs.
You might need to use rpiboot to update the CM4 bootloader. Instructions for building rpiboot and configuring the IO board to switch the ROM to usbboot mode are in the usbboot Github repository. See Raspberry Pi 4 Bootloader Configuration. Use lsblk to check the partition assignments:. If the boot process fails, please file an issue on the rpi-eeprom Github repository , including a copy of the console and anything displayed on the screen during boot.
In addition to network install, you can explicitly boot your device with files downloaded via HTTP with boot-mode 7. You can still use this even if network install on boot is disabled. If network install on boot were enabled it would use the same URL.
If GPIO 8 were not pulled low the behaviour would be unchanged. HTTP boot only works over ethernet, so you need to connect your Raspberry Pi to your network via an Ethernet cable, e. All HTTP downloads must be signed. The bootloader includes a public key for the files on the default host fw-download-alias1. This allows you to host the Raspberry Pi network install images on your own server. You would do something like this. So if you want to use network install or HTTP boot mode with secure boot you must sign boot.
The public key in the eeprom will be used to verify the image. This interface is controlled by the GPU firmware and can be programmed by a user via special config. Note that all other peripheral overlays that use conflicting GPIO pins must be disabled. In config. If neither are present and a custom mode is requested, then a default set of parameters for VGAp60 is used. A 'full fat' DPI overlay dpi Note this uses all of the bank 0 GPIO pins. A second overlay vga These overlays are fairly trivial and a user can edit them to create a custom overlay to enable just the pins required for their specific use case.
For example, if one was using a DPI display using vsync, hsync, pclk, and de but in RGB mode mode 2 , then the dpi Note that the instructions provided in the documentation in the above GitHub link are somewhat out of date, so please use the settings below. Each of the three banks has its own VDD input pin.
Register-based control settings are available for:. All GPIO pins revert to general-purpose inputs on power-on reset. The default pull states are also applied, which are detailed in the alternate function table in the ARM peripherals datasheet. Most GPIOs have a default pull applied. Several interrupt generation sources are configurable:.
Level interrupts maintain the interrupt status until the level has been cleared by system software e. At the system clock frequency, the pin is sampled with the criteria for generation of an interrupt being a stable transition within a three-cycle window, i. Asynchronous detection bypasses this synchronisation to enable the detection of very narrow events. Almost all of the GPIO pins have alternative functions. Peripheral blocks internal to the SoC can be selected to appear on one or more of a set of GPIO pins, for example the I2C buses can be configured to at least 3 separate locations.
Pad control , such as drive strength or Schmitt filtering, still applies when the pin is configured as an alternate function. For information about Compute Modules you should see the relevant datasheets. Raspberry Pi 4 and Raspberry Pi GPIO drive strengths do not indicate a maximum current, but a maximum current under which the pad will still meet the specification.
You should set the GPIO drive strengths to match the device being attached in order for the device to work correctly. Inside the pad are a number of drivers in parallel. If the drive strength is set low 0b most of these are tri-stated so they do not add anything to the output current. If the drive strength is increased, more and more drivers are put in parallel. The following diagram shows that behaviour. The pad will try to drive the output high or low. Success will depend on the requirements of what is connected.
If the pad is shorted to ground, it will not be able to drive high. It will actually try to deliver as much current as it can, and the current is only limited by the internal resistance. If the pad is driven high and it is shorted to ground, in due time it will fail. The same holds true if you connect it to 3. Meeting the specification is determined by the guaranteed voltage levels. Because the pads are digital, there are two voltage levels, high and low.
This also means that if you set a drive strength of 2mA and you draw 16mA, the voltage will not be V OH but lower. In fact, it may not be high enough to be seen as high by an external device. The Raspberry Pi 3. If you load each pin with 16mA, the total current is mA.
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